Dhemaji is a district in the north-eastern state of Assam in India. It is located in the Brahmaputra Valley and is bordered by Arunachal Pradesh to the north, Lakhimpur district to the west, Dibrugarh district to the east, and North Lakhimpur district to the south. Dhemaji was declared a full-fledged district in 2004, carved out of the larger Lakhimpur district.
The history of Dhemaji is closely tied to the history of Assam. The region was ruled by various kingdoms, including the Chutia and Ahom kingdoms. The Ahom dynasty ruled Assam for six centuries, from 1228 to 1826. During this time, Dhemaji was part of the Ahom kingdom and was known as "Dhima Hasong." The area was known for its fertile land and was an important agricultural center.
In the early 19th century, Assam was annexed by the British, and Dhemaji became part of the British Raj. The British introduced tea cultivation in the region, which is now an important part of the district's economy. After India gained independence in 1947, Dhemaji became part of the newly created state of Assam. In recent years, Dhemaji has faced a number of challenges, including ethnic conflicts and floods.
Dhemaji is located in the Brahmaputra Valley and covers an area of 3237 square kilometers. The district is located at an altitude of 92 meters above sea level. The Brahmaputra River flows through the district, and several other smaller rivers, including the Simen, Jiadhal, and Gerukamukh, also flow through the area. The district is mainly hilly and forested, with dense forests covering about 70% of the area.
Dhemaji is prone to flooding due to its location in the Brahmaputra Valley. The district has experienced severe floods in recent years, causing significant damage to infrastructure and agriculture.
According to the 2011 census, Dhemaji has a population of 695,369, with a population density of 214 people per square kilometer. The district is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Mishing, Bodo, Sonowal Kachari, Ahom, and Nepali. The Mishing people are the largest ethnic group in the district, accounting for about 50% of the population. Assamese is the official language of the district, but a number of other languages, including Mishing, Bodo, and Hindi, are also spoken.
The literacy rate in Dhemaji is 69.39%, slightly lower than the national average. The district has a predominantly rural population, with only about 15% of the population living in urban areas.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy in Dhemaji, with the district being known for its production of paddy, pulses, and mustard. Tea cultivation is also an important industry in the district, with several tea estates located in the area. The district is also known for its production of silk, with the Mishing people being skilled in silk weaving.
Apart from agriculture, small-scale industries such as handloom weaving, pottery, and cane and bamboo handicrafts are also important sources of income for the people of Dhemaji. The district is also home to a number of hydroelectric projects, including the Gerukamukh Hydroelectric Project and the Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Project.
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